Thursday, August 27, 2020

The Financial Analysis of Dell Inc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Financial Analysis of Dell Inc - Essay Example On account of the previously mentioned qualities, the organization has made a name in the PC business and made sure about a noteworthy part of the worldwide piece of the overall industry. The organization additionally appreciates solid brand value. Procurement of financing is moderately simpler as the company’s stock has a higher market esteem. With its pledge to greatness and brilliant industry possibilities, I accept that the organization will have the option to continue these qualities in the further.One of the significant shortcomings of Dell is its absence of exclusive innovation in its creation exercises. A few specialists allude to Dell as a PC creator and not a PC producer. As Dell buys, semi-amassed contributions to its creation, dealing power is inclined to providers. Dell’s substantial reliance on providers additionally opens it to chance looked by them. Dell’s high usage of long haul obligation in financing its advantages may make its speculators hesi tant in buying its stocks. The organization can conquer these shortcomings by putting more in innovative work. Vital associations ought to likewise be fortified and friends ought to have the option to deal with its cost all the more productively. I am a lot of idealistic about the eventual fate of Dell, Inc. The quick mechanical headway and developing significance of processing gadgets guarantee the business association with a definite market. It ought to likewise be noticed that the online plan of action only utilized by Dell will without a doubt be belittled as the degree of web entrance on the planet increments sharply.... Qualities and Weaknesses The significant quality of Dell, Inc. is its usage of a plan of action which empowers it to receive different rewards which are not appreciated by its rivals. The immediate business cut a lot of cost in the organization's gracefully chain by wiping out the less worth including exercises. Inventories were kept low and mechanical advancements are conveyed to the client inside seven days contradicted to industry's normal of two months. The immediate plan of action additionally empowered the organization to advertise legitimately to the purchasers, subsequently offering more tweaked items. Another is Dell's cost initiative procedure. As the organization can deliver PCs with the least conceivable cost, the organization is additionally ready to charge lower costs to clients comparative with its rivals. As a result of the previously mentioned qualities, the organization has made a name in the PC business and made sure about a noteworthy part of the worldwide piece of the overall industry. T he organization likewise appreciates solid brand value. Obtaining of financing is generally simpler as the organization's stock has a higher market esteem. With its responsibility for greatness and brilliant industry possibilities, I accept that the organization will have the option to support these qualities in the further. One of the significant shortcomings of Dell is its absence of exclusive innovation in its creation exercises. A few specialists allude to Dell as a PC producer and not a PC maker. Another is Dell's high reliance on its providers. As Dell buys semi-collected contributions to its creation, bartering power is inclined to providers. Dell's substantial reliance on providers additionally opens it to chance looked by them. Dell's high use of long haul mark in financing its benefits may make its speculators hesitant in buying its stocks. The

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Medical law and ethics Essay

As indicated by Fremgen (2012), each state has a sculpture or guideline that requires that all human services experts and doctors report all instances of (AIDS) to the branch of wellbeing neighborhood or state level. This would permit Dr. K to meet his commitment in detailing the transmittable ailment. In certain states it is likewise legitimate to educate a life partner, needle sharing accomplice, or other gathering that might be in danger of getting the illness (Fremgen, 2012). For this situation Dr. K could contact Brian’s accomplices without him relying upon the state they are at present found. Dr. K could likewise utilize this as influence to get Brian to return and talk about his present ailment. This could help get Brian once again into the workplace to discuss a treatment plan, plan to advise his sexual partner’s, and how Brian plans to adapt to this new improvement in his life. Brian will require data on help gatherings and adapting. In the event that this methodology doesn’t work, at that point possibly Dr. K can keep on connecting through email, mail, and week after week calls. He could likewise send data on neighborhood bolster bunches with the expectation that Brian would search out assistance and backing from a nearby help part and in the long run return and address me when the underlying stun has worn off.

Friday, August 21, 2020

50 Must-Read Modern Classics in Translation From Around the World

50 Must-Read Modern Classics in Translation From Around the World Did you know that only about 3% of books published in the U.S. each year are translations? The number varies from year to year, but regardless, its low. And yet reading literature from countries and languages other than ones own has never been more important. Reading books in translation can offer us a different way of looking at the world. It can teach us about other cultures and their histories. It can help us understand ourselves better. And it can also be fun. Missing out on translations is missing out on great art and great reading experiences. So below Ive compiled a list of 50 must-read modern classics in translation. For the purposes of this post, Ive defined a modern classic as a great book published within the last fifty years, so from 1968 on. My first pick has some stories from earlier than that dateâ€"and some from laterâ€"but otherwise, everything here was released in the last 50 years. The books are arranged by publication date, with the authors country of origin noted as well. Book descriptions come from Goodreads. Do you have a favorite book in translation I missed? The Complete Stories by Clarice Lispector, Translated by Katrina Dodson Now, for the first time in English, are all the stories that made her a Brazilian legend: from teenagers coming into awareness of their sexual and artistic powers to humdrum housewives whose lives are shattered by unexpected epiphanies to old people who don’t know what to do with themselves. (Brazil, 1960sâ€"1970s) The Summer Book by Tove Jansson, Translated by Thomas Teal In The Summer Book Tove Jansson distills the essence of the summerâ€"its sunlight and stormsâ€"into twenty-two crystalline vignettes. This brief novel tells the story of Sophia, a six-year-old girl awakening to existence, and Sophia’s grandmother, nearing the end of hers, as they spend the summer on a tiny unspoiled island in the Gulf of Finland. (Finland, 1972) The Box Man by Kobo Abe, Translated by E. Dale Saunders In this eerie and evocative masterpiece, the nameless protagonist gives up his identity and the trappings of a normal life to live in a large cardboard box he wears over his head. (Japan, 1973) Fatelessness by Imre Kertész, Translated by Tim Wilkinson At the age of 14 Georg Koves is plucked from his home in a Jewish section of Budapest and without any particular malice, placed on a train to Auschwitz. He does not understand the reason for his fate. He doesn’t particularly think of himself as Jewish. And his fellow prisoners, who decry his lack of Yiddish, keep telling him, You are no Jew. In the lowest circle of the Holocaust, Georg remains an outsider. (Hungary, 1973) History by Elsa Morante, Translated by Lily Tuck History was written nearly thirty years after Elsa Morante and Alberto Moravia spent a year in hiding among remote farming villages in the mountains south of Rome. There she witnessed the full impact of the war and first formed the ambition to write an account of what history…does when it reaches the realm of ordinary people struggling for life and bread. (Italy, 1974) Terra Nostra by Carlos Fuentes, Translated by Margaret Sayers Peden [The novel] covers 20 centuries of European and American culture, and prominently features the construction of El Escorial by Philip II. The title is Latin for Our earth. Modeled on James Joyces Finnegans Wake, Terra Nostra shifts unpredictably between the sixteenth century and the twentieth, seeking the roots of contemporary Latin American society in the struggle between the conquistadors and indigenous Americans. (Mexico, 1975) Too Loud a Solitude by Bohumil Hrabal, Translated by Michael Henry Heim Too Loud a Solitude is a tender and funny story of Hantaâ€"a man who has lived in a Czech police stateâ€"for 35 years, working as compactor of wastepaper and books. In the process of compacting, he has acquired an education so unwitting he cant quite tell which of his thoughts are his own and which come from his books. (Czechoslovakia, 1976) Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter by Mario Vargas Llosa, Translated by Helen R. Lane Mario Vargas Llosas brilliant, multilayered novel is set in the Lima, Peru, of the authors youth, where a young student named Marito is toiling away in the news department of a local radio station. His young life is disrupted by two arrivals. (Peru, 1977) If on a Winters Night a Traveler by Italo Calvino, Translated by William Weaver Italo Calvinos novel is in one sense a comedy in which the two protagonists, the Reader and the Other Reader, ultimately end up married, having almost finished If on a Winters Night a Traveler. In another, it is a tragedy, a reflection on the difficulties of writing and the solitary nature of reading. (Italy, 1979) So Long A Letter by Mariama Bâ, Translated by Modupé Bodé-Thomas The brief narrative, written as an extended letter, is a sequence of reminiscencesâ€"some wistful, some bitterâ€"recounted by recently widowed Senegalese schoolteacher Ramatoulaye Fall. Addressed to a lifelong friend, Aissatiou, it is a record of Ramatoulayes emotional struggle for survival after her husband betrayed their marriage by taking a second wife. (Senegal, 1979) The name of the Rose by Umberto Eco, Translated by William Weaver The year is 1327. Franciscans in a wealthy Italian abbey are suspected of heresy, and Brother William of Baskerville arrives to investigate. When his delicate mission is suddenly overshadowed by seven bizarre deaths, Brother William turns detective. (Italy, 1980) The House of the Spirits by Isabel Allende, Translated by Magda Bogin Here is patriarch Esteban, whose wild desires and political machinations are tempered only by his love for his ethereal wife, Clara, a woman touched by an otherworldly hand. Their daughter, Blanca, whose forbidden love for a man Esteban has deemed unworthy infuriates her father, yet will produce his greatest joy: his granddaughter Alba. (Chile, 1982) The Post-Office Girl by Stefan Zweig, Translated by Joel Rotenberg The logic of capitalism, boom and bust, is unremitting and unforgiving. But what happens to human feeling in a completely commodified world? In  The Post-Office Girl, Stefan Zweig, a deep analyst of the human passions, lays bare the private life of capitalism. (Austria, 1982) The Piano Teacher by Elfriede Jelinek, Translated by Joachim Neugroschel Erika Kohut is a piano teacher at the prestigious and formal Vienna Conservatory, who still lives with her domineering and possessive mother. Her life appears to be a seamless tissue of boredom, but Erika, a quiet thirty-eight-year-old, secretly visits Turkish peep shows at night to watch live sex shows and sadomasochistic films. (Austria, 1983) The City and the House by Natalia Ginzburg, Translated by Dick Davis This powerful novel is set against the background of Italy from 1939 to 1944, from the anxious months before the country entered the war, through the war years, to the Allied victory with its trailing wake of anxiety, disappointment, and grief. (Italy, 1984) The Lover by Marguerite Duras, Translated by Barbara Bray Set in the prewar Indochina of Marguerite Duras’s childhood, this is the haunting tale of a tumultuous affair between an adolescent French girl and her Chinese lover. In spare yet luminous prose, Duras evokes life on the margins of Saigon in the waning days of France’s colonial empire. (France, 1984) The Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera, Translated by michael Henry Heim In The Unbearable Lightness of Being, Milan Kundera tells the story of a young woman in love with a man torn between his love for her and his incorrigible womanizing and one of his mistresses and her humbly faithful lover. (Czechoslovakia, 1984) Fantasia: An Algerian Cavalcade by Assia Djebar, Translated by Dorothy S. Blair Assia Djebar intertwines the history of her native Algeria with episodes from the life of a young girl in a story stretching from the French conquest in 1830 to the War of Liberation of the 1950s. The girl, growing up in the old Roman coastal town of Cherchel, sees her life in contrast to that of a neighboring French family, and yearns for more than law and tradition allow her to experience. (Algeria, 1985) Love in the time of Cholera by Gabriel García Márquez, Translated by Edith Grossman In their youth, Florentino Ariza and Fermina Daza fall passionately in love. When Fermina eventually chooses to marry a wealthy, well-born doctor, Florentino is devastated, but he is a romantic. As he rises in his business career he whiles away the years in 622 affairsâ€"yet he reserves his heart for Fermina. (Colombia, 1985) The Sand Child by Tahar Ben Jelloun, Translated by Alan Sheridan In this lyrical, hallucinatory novel set in Morocco, Tahar Ben Jelloun offers an imaginative and radical critique of contemporary Arab social customs and Islamic law. The Sand Child tells the story of a Moroccan fathers effort to thwart the consequences of Islams inheritance laws regarding female offspring. (Morocco, 1985) Death in Spring by Mercé Rodoreda, Translated by Martha Tennent The novel tells the story of the bizarre and destructive customs of a nameless townâ€"burying the dead in trees after filling their mouths with cement to prevent their soul from escaping, or sending a man to swim in the river that courses underneath the town to discover if they will be washed away by a floodâ€"through the eyes of a fourteen-year-old boy who must come to terms with the rhyme and reason of this ritual violence. (Spain, 1986) The Door by Magda Szabó, Translated by Len Rix A busy young writer struggling to cope with domestic chores, hires a housekeeper recommended by a friend. The housekeepers reputation is one built on dependable efficiency, though she is something of an oddity. Stubborn, foul-mouthed and with a flagrant disregard for her employers opinions she may even be crazy. (Hungary, 1987) Before by Carmen Boullosa, Translated by Peter Bush Part bildungsroman, part ghost story, part revenge novel, Before tells the story of a woman who returns to the landscape of her childhood to overcome the fear that held her captive as a girl. (Mexico, 1989) LIke Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel, Translated by Thomas Christensen and CArol Christensen A sumptuous feast of a novel, it relates the bizarre history of the all-female De La Garza family. Tita, the youngest daughter of the house, has been forbidden to marry, condemned by Mexican tradition to look after her mother until she dies. But Tita falls in love with Pedro, and he is seduced by the magical food she cooks. (Mexico, 1989) A Quiet Life by Kenzaburo Oe, Translated by Kunioki Yanagishita and William Wetherall A Quiet Life is narrated by Ma-chan, a twenty-year-old woman. Her father is a famous and fascinating novelist; her older brother, though severely brain damaged, possesses an almost magical gift for musical composition; and her mothers life is devoted to the care of them both. (Japan, 1990) A Heart So White by Javier Marias, Translated by Margaret Jull Costa Javier Maríass A Heart So White chronicles with unnerving insistence the relentless power of the past. Juan knows little of the interior life of his father Ranz; but when Juan marries, he begins to consider the past anew, and begins to ponder what he doesnt really want to know. (Spain, 1992) The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle by Haruki Murakami, Translated by Jay Rubin In a Tokyo suburb a young man named Toru Okada searches for his wifes missing cat. Soon he finds himself looking for his wife as well in a netherworld that lies beneath the placid surface of Tokyo. (Japan, 1994) Blindness by José Saramago, Translated by Giovanni POntiero A city is hit by an epidemic of white blindness that spares no one. Authorities confine the blind to an empty mental hospital, but there the criminal element holds everyone captive, stealing food rations and assaulting women. There is one eyewitness to this nightmare who guides her charges…through the barren streets, and their procession becomes as uncanny as the surroundings are harrowing. (Portugal, 1995) The Rings of Saturn by W.G. Sebald, Translated by Michael Hulse The Rings of Saturn is his record of these travels, a phantasmagoria of fragments and memories, fraught with dizzying knowledge and desperation and shadowed by mortality. As in The Emigrants, past and present intermingle: the living come to seem like supernatural apparitions while the dead are vividly present. (Germany, 1995) Voices from Chernobyl by Svetlana Alexievich, Translated by Keith Gessen On April 26, 1986, the worst nuclear reactor accident in history occurred in Chernobyl and contaminated as much as three quarters of Europe. Voices from Chernobyl is the first book to present personal accounts of the tragedy. Journalist Svetlana Alexievich interviewed hundreds of people affected by the meltdown…and their stories reveal the fear, anger, and uncertainty with which they still live. (Belarus, 1997) The Savage Detectives by Robert Bolaño, Translated by Natasha Wimmer New Year’s Eve, 1975: Arturo Belano and Ulises Lima, founders of the visceral realist movement in poetry, leave Mexico City in a borrowed white Impala. Their quest: to track down the obscure, vanished poet Cesárea Tinajero. A violent showdown in the Sonora desert turns search to flight; twenty years later Belano and Lima are still on the run. (Chile, 1998) Delirium by Laura Restrepo, Translated by Natasha Wimmer In this remarkably nuanced novel, both a gripping detective story and a passionate, devastating tale of eros and insanity in Colombia, internationally acclaimed author Laura Restrepo delves into the minds of four characters. (Colombia, 2000) An Episode in the Life of a Landscape Painter by César Aira, Translated by Chris Andrews An astounding novel from Argentina that is a meditation on the beautiful and the grotesque in nature, the art of landscape painting, and one experience in a mans life that became a lightning rod for inspiration. (Argentina, 2000) The Shadow of the Wind by Carlos Ruiz Zafón, Translated by Lucia Graves The international literary sensation, about a boys quest through the secrets and shadows of postwar Barcelona for a mysterious author whose book has proved as dangerous to own as it is impossible to forget. (Spain, 2001) Snow by Orhan Pamuk, Translated by Maureen Freely Following years of lonely political exile in Western Europe, Ka, a middle-aged poet, returns to Istanbul to attend his mothers funeral. Only partly recognizing this place of his cultured, middle-class youth, he is even more disoriented by news of strange events in the wider country: a wave of suicides among girls forbidden to wear their head scarves at school. (Turkey, 2002) A Tale of Love and Darkness by Amos Oz, Translated by Nicholas de Lange A family saga and a magical self-portrait of a writer who witnessed the birth of a nation and lived through its turbulent history. A Tale of Love and Darkness is the story of a boy who grows up in war-torn Jerusalem, in a small apartment crowded with books in twelve languages and relatives speaking nearly as many. (Israel, 2002) The Yacoubian Building by Alaa Al Aswany, Translated by Humphrey Davies All manner of flawed and fragile humanity reside in the Yacoubian Building…a fading aristocrat and self-proclaimed scientist of women; a sultry, voluptuous siren; a devout young student, feeling the irresistible pull toward fundamentalism; a newspaper editor helplessly in love with a policeman; a corrupt and corpulent politician, twisting the Koran to justify his desires. (Egypt, 2002) The Housekeeper and the Professor by Yoko Ogawa, Translated by Stephen Snyder He is a brilliant math Professor with a peculiar problemâ€"ever since a traumatic head injury, he has lived with only eighty minutes of short-term memory. She is an astute young Housekeeper, with a ten-year-old son, who is hired to care for him. And every morning, as the Professor and the Housekeeper are introduced to each other anew, a strange and beautiful relationship blossoms between them. (Japan, 2003) The Ministry of Pain by Dubravka UgreÅ¡ic, Translated by Michael Henry Heim Abandoning literature, Tanja encourages her students to indulge their Yugonostalgia in essays about their personal experiences during their homelands cultural and physical disintegration. But Tanjas act of academic rebellion incites the rage of one renegade member of her classâ€"and pulls her dangerously close to anotherâ€"which, in turn, exacerbates the tensions of a life in exile that has now begun to spiral seriously out of control. (Yugoslavia, Netherlands, 2004) Broken Glass by Alain Mabanckou, Translated by Helen Stevenson Alain Mabanckou’s riotous new novel centers on the patrons of a run-down bar in the Congo. In a country that appears to have forgotten the importance of remembering, a former schoolteacher and bar regular nicknamed Broken Glass has been elected to record their stories for posterity. But Broken Glass fails spectacularly at staying out of trouble. (Republic of the Congo, 2005) The Elegance of the Hedgehog by Muriel Barbery, Translated by Alison Anderson We are in the center of Paris, in an elegant apartment building inhabited by bourgeois families. Renée, the concierge, is witness to the lavish but vacuous lives of her numerous employers. Outwardly she conforms to every stereotype of the concierge: fat, cantankerous, addicted to television. Yet, unbeknownst to her employers, Renée is a cultured autodidact who adores art, philosophy, music, and Japanese culture. (France, 2006) The Proof of the Honey by Salwa Al Neimi, Translated by Cal Perkins The Proof of the Honey is a superb celebration of female pleasure. A Syrian scholar working in Paris is invited to contribute to a conference on the subject of classic erotic literature in Arabic. The invitation provides occasion for her to evoke memories from her own life, to exult in her personal liberty, her lovers, her desires, and to revisit moments of shared intimacy with other women as they discuss life, love, and sexual desire. (Syria, 2007) The Vegetarian by Han Kang, Translated by Deborah Smith Before the nightmare, Yeong-hye and her husband lived an ordinary life. But when splintering, blood-soaked images start haunting her thoughts, Yeong-hye decides to purge her mind and renounce eating meat. In a country where societal mores are strictly obeyed, Yeong-hyes decision to embrace a more plant-like existence is a shocking act of subversion. (South Korea, 2007) To the End of the Land by David Grossman, Translated by Jessica Cohen Ora, a middle-aged Israeli mother, is on the verge of celebrating her son Ofer’s release from army service when he returns to the front for a major offensive. In a fit of preemptive grief and magical thinking, she sets out for a hike in the Galilee, leaving no forwarding information for the notifiers who might darken her door with the worst possible news. (Israel, 2008) The Hunger Angel by Herta Müller, Translated by Philip Boehm It was an icy morning in January 1945 when the patrol came for seventeen-year-old Leo Auberg to deport him to a camp in the Soviet Union. Leo would spend the next five years in a coke processing plant, shoveling coal, lugging bricks, mixing mortar, and battling the relentless calculus of hunger that governed the labor colony: one shovel load of coal is worth one gram of bread. (Romania, Germany, 2009) My Struggle: Book One by Karl Ove KnausgÃ¥rd, Translated by Don Bartlett Almost ten years have passed since Karl O. Knausgaards father drank himself to death. He is now embarking on his third novel while haunted by self-doubt. Knausgaard breaks his own life story down to its elementary particles, often recreating memories in real time, blending recollections of images and conversation with profound questions in a remarkable way. (Norway, 2009) Three Strong Women by Marie NDiaye, Translated by John Fletcher This is the story of three women who say no: Norah, a French-born lawyer who finds herself in Senegal, summoned by her estranged, tyrannical father to save another victim of his paternity; Fanta, who leaves a modest but contented life as a teacher in Dakar to follow her white boyfriend back to France, where his delusional depression and sense of failure poison everything; and Khady, a penniless widow put out by her husband’s family with nothing but the name of a distant cousin (France, 2009) Touch by Adania Shibli, Translated by Paula Haydar Touch centers on a girl, the youngest of nine sisters in a Palestinian family. In the singular world of this novella, this young womans everyday experiences resonate until they have become as weighty as any national tragedy. (Palestine, 2010) My Brilliant Friend by Elena Ferrante, Translated by Ann Goldstein My Brilliant Friend is a rich, intense and generous hearted story about two friends, Elena and Lila. Ferrantes inimitable style lends itself perfectly to a meticulous portrait of these two women that is also the story of a nation and a touching meditation on the nature of friendship. (Italy, 2011) The Last Lover by Can Xue, Translated by Annelise Finegan Wasmoen In Can Xue’s extraordinary book, we encounter a full assemblage of husbands, wives, and lovers. Entwined in complicated, often tortuous relationships, these characters step into each other’s fantasies, carrying on conversations that are forever guessing games. Their journeys reveal the deepest realms of human desire. (China, 2014) Want even more translation in your life? Check out this list of 100 must-read classics in translationâ€"books from 50 up to thousands of years ago.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Growth Of Islamic Financial Services In UK - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2871 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“There is huge potential for an expansion of Islamic offerings in the UK financial markets, which will boost Londonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s position as an international financial centreà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. (Callum McCarthy,2007) Background Islam is a divine religion and provides guidance for all walks of life. Muslims are currently trying to revitalize the Islamic laws in all fields of life. Especially economic field is in great focus. In 1980à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Middle East Muslim countries again tries to put in practice the Islamic financial Islamic laws 1st time and set the foundations for Islamic banking and finance for the world. After that Islamic financial services grew very fast not only Muslim countries but also in Non-Muslim countries. According to FSA (Bank of England and the Financial Services Authority) briefing note (2006) currently Islamic banking and finance is growing from 10% to 15% annually in international market and the main reason of this growth is that Muslim population in Western world and Islamic products are socially responsible. According to Shayerah Ilias (2009) Shariah or Islamic laws are the bases of Islamic finance. Shariah prohibits interest, uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing an d profit-sharing and promote ethical investment and asset backing. S. Ilias (2009) also claimed that currently there is 10% to 15% annual growth in international market for Islamic finance because some researchers argued that Islamic finance brings lots of business opportunities and alternative methods for capital formation and economic development. Among the Western world the demand of Islamic financial market is especially growing in North America and UK, although Muslims are in minority there. According to FSA briefing notes (2006) FSA approved license for the 1st fully Shariah compliance bank Islamic Bank of Britain (IBB) in 2004 and this bank sells Islamic products in consumer market. In 2006 FSA licensed European Islamic Investment Bank that was the 1st independent Shariah compliant investment bank in UK. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Growth Of Islamic Financial Services In UK" essay for you Create order Aims and objectives Considering the above mentioned historical background of Islamic banking and finance in UK the proposed study aims to further investigate and explore how Islamic banking and finance grew in UK market. Study will explore the motives behind this fast growth and the challenges. Research will further investigate and explore the future scope of Islamic finance in UK. In other world the objective of the research is To explore the growth of Islamic banking and financial services in UK. To find out which Islamic products are commonly sold in UK financial market To explore the reasons of growth of Islamic finance in UK To identify the future possibilities for Islamic banking and finance in UK financial Market To identify the challenges for Islamic banking and finance in UK To meet these objectives proposed research will answer the following questions Whether Islamic banking is growing in Western countries like UK? What kind of Islamic products are commonly sold in UK financial market? What is the Future of Islamic Banking in UK? What kind of challenges Islamic banking and finance can face in Western world particularly in UK? Literature review Islamic banking Ismail Tohirin (2010) argued that Muslims around the world spend their lives under Islamic Rules which are defined by The Holy Book of Quran that is called Shariah law. In Shariah law, all type of interest in Islamic banking products and Islamic finance is forbidden. In Islamic banking, no interest is involved but time value of money and risk considered very important and play its part. Customers and Islamic banking work together on the basis of risk sharing. Both share risks which are already agreed on the terms of investment, profits and losses. According to Laldin (2008) Interest is forbidden in investment of alcohol, pornography and betting. Other banks cannot help Islamic banks or Islamic banks cannot get help to lend. There are different types of Islamic products available for customers. Ijara and Murabha are considered very important products. Historical Background of growth of Islamic banking in UK According to FSA (Bank of England and the Financial Services Authority) briefing note (2006) 3% population of UK are Muslims and nearly half million Muslim visitors regularly visits UK. These facts are the major reason of growth in Islamic banking and finance. Many UK high street bank are offering current accounts and mortgages through Islamic windows. The report further claimed that in Western world the first fully fledged Shahriah bank à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Islamic Bank of Britonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? was introduced in 2004 in UK with FSA authorization. London is a major financial center for international firms and Middle Eastà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s banks that offer Islamic products. This also confirms that Islamic finance is growing from 10% to 15% annually at global level. Shayerah Ilias (2009) claimed that internationally modern Islamic finance introduced in 1970à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s. There is no doubt that currently Islamic has a very small but growing market in global financial market and esti mated annual growth rate of Islamic finance is 10% to 15% in last 10 years. He further claimed that Islamic bonds (Sukuk) are gaining popularity in global market. $ 70 million worth Islamic bonds are in global financial market and up to $100 millions are expected in 2010. Global growth of Sukuk from 2004-2007 is approximately more than five folds. This is shown by the following figure (Source Shayerah Ilias, 2009, Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concern, DIANE Publishing) Ismail and Tohirin, (2010) also claimed that the growth of Islamic banks is 10-15% per year and there is strong expectation that it will grow further. The recent credit crisis gave further boost to Shariah compliant banking and finance. There are 300 different Islamic Institutions in 51 different countries of the world. The amount of total assets hold by Islamic banks is 822 billion US dollars. In addition, there are 250 mutual funds working around the world which are completely complying with the Isl amic banking and financial system. According to CIMB Group Holding Analysis, the rate of growth of Islamic banking and finance is fast than any other financial institution. The rate of growth of Islamic bonds is nearly 24% with the total amount of 25 billion US dollars in 2010. The network of Islamic banking is not only constrained in the Muslim world but it is also spread in different continent and different developed world including America and United Kingdom. Principles of Islamic Banking and Islamic products The purpose of Islamic banking is same as main stream banking system except that it is in accordance with the laws of Shariah. The transactions in Islamic banking system are done with the help of Islamic banking system. The most common terms used in Islamic banking are Riba (interest), Mudarabah (Profit sharing), safekeeping (Wadiah), Musharakah (Joint Venture) Ijara (leasing) Tufakil (Insurance). (Hassan and Lewis, 2007) Islamic Mortgages The banks first purchase the property and then sell it to its customer. Here Islamic banks are not acting as a third party. They get ownership of the property and deal with the customer as first hand party. The banks give ownership of property to its customer from very first day. As bank income is implicit and banks do not charge some additional amount on the late payments. To avoid the bankruptcy, the banks do extensive check of credit worthiness and security measures. This type of agreement is called Murabha. Another approach is called Ijara; this contract is same like real estate and mostly applied on the leasing of vehicle. The customer is charged higher for the product then market value of product. The ownership of product is given at the time of full payment. (Hassan and Lewis, 2007) Partnership (Musharakah) In this type of product the bank and borrowing party make a partnership entity. They both invest in the property. The borrower then gives property at the rent and gets rental income. At this stage bank and borrower both have shares in the property. The borrower then starts to pay the money at the greed amount and banks shares reduce with each instalment. This will carry on until borrower gets all the shares of property for the bank. (Benamraoui, 2008) In case of default both bank and borrower will get the proceeds from sales in certain percentage which is equal to floating market rates, on the basis of BLR (basic lending rate). This is especially applicable in the banking system is dual in nature. Mudarabah (venture capital) In this contract one party provides the finance for a project while other party provides required expertise and labour force. Both the parties get agree in the beginning of contract in case of profit from the project who much will be share of both parties and if project gets failed then in what proportion they will share the shock of loss. Here expert company does not promise to pay certain amount of money back. Rather than that they keep an uncertainty. The logical justification for that is the future is uncertain. A project which is looking very good and there is strong expectation that it will give positive cash flow from the beginning can get wrong and result into loss. On the other hand, uncertain external environment can make a very weak project to a good positive cash generator. In such circumstances, it is not possible for any organization to promise that they will definitely give certain amount of money. (Hassan and Lewis, 2007) In modern banking system, banks normally promise with the investor that they will give them certain amount of money. If due to internal or external economic reason, they get failed, they have to apply for bankruptcy. In this case investors lose whole sum of money. It means if someone makes a promise that they will pay them certain money is actually lie. Islamic banks do not involve in such guarantees. (Ismail and Tohirin, 2010) Islamic Credit Cards Islamic credit cards are accepted in all over the world. These are getting more and more popular due to their benefits which holder of card get and not available through the cards of main stream banks. The holders of card will not have to pay the interest if payment is made before due date. The second benefit of Islamic credit card is that the cardholder can pay Zakat and Takaful online through this card. (Ismail and Tohirin, 2010) Bai Al-Inahl, Quardul Hassan and Al-Wadiah can be applied in Islamic credit card transactions. In this way, Islamic credit cards are complied with the Shariah products. The main stream banks are not providing any of such facilities. The transaction make through Islamic credit cards are interest free and have fixed profit margin if payment on the credit card is late. It does not compound up once payment is not made in time as traditional banks are doing. (Ismail and Tohirin, 2010) Sukuk  (Islamic Bond) These are Islamic financial certifica tes or in other word, these are Islamic bonds. The investors in the bond do not get the fixed rate of return on investment as interest is prohibited in Islamic economics. The Islamic bonds are classified into tradability and Non-tradability. The total worth of Islamic bonds in next ten years framework would be 1.2 trillion US dollars. The holder of these bonds profit at the rate as the investor is returning to issuer Company. The issuer of bonds set the terms and conditions of its shares in profit. However, investors also share some risk of loss. To avoid the risk the investment project is carefully monitored in the beginning of contract and during the life cycle of project. (Laldin, 2008) Main drivers of Growth M. Ainley et al (2007) argued that there are six main reasons of growth of Islamic financial services in UK No Reason of Growth Explanation 1 Global expansion Islamic finance is growing very fast in the world. Islamic banking 1st introduces in 1060à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s in Middle East and grows very fast and now its market size is approximately  £250bn globally and nearly 300 financial institutions are offering Islamic financial products. This fast growth has affect UK market too 2 Liquid Markets Londonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s financial market is very flexible, innovative and liquid. UK financial industry is very famous for developing and delivering new financial products 3 Islamic windows Many global banks and financial institutes are working in Middle East and South East Asian countries and have gained a very experience of local market where Islamic banking is growing very fast. So these international banks like Citi, HSBC etc have established Islamic windows that sell Islamic products with their normal routine business. 4 Excess Liquidity in Middle East Excessive Liquidity in the Middle East countries have encouraged the growth of Islamic as well as conventional assets and local financial markets are not capable enough to manage financial activities and large investors starting considering international financial markets. 5 Public policy and regulation UK government also have changed public policy and taxation and developed a taxation policy that is both applicable for both Islamic and conventional financial products 6 Single financial regulator UK government have developed 11 different financial regulators into one by introducing the Bank of England and the Financial Services Authority (FSA) that has increased the result in improved access to Islamic banks and Islamic financial products (Source M. Ainley et al, 2007, Islamic Finance in the UK: Regulation and Challenges, Financial Service Authority accessed from Challenges for Islamic finance in UK According to Clive Briault (2007) currently Islamic banks are facing the same challenges as conventional banking but there are some risks which are affecting Islamic banks only. But he mentioned two challenges in particular Risk Management Clive Briault (2007) argued that it is very difficult to manage risk for Islamic finance because many risk management tools that are used by conventional banks or firms are not compliant to Shariah. So there is a big challenge for Islamic finance to develop the tools for risk management. He used the example of Mudaraba and claimed that this product have the same effects in term of liquidity as conventional banksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ interbank deposit and FSA have concern that how Islamic banks will manage risk for that products. Diverse opinion among Shariah scholars Clive Briault (2007) also claimed that 2nd main concern about Islamic banking is that there is a difference in opinion among Shariah scholars about the different products an d FSA a secular regulator not religious so it is difficult for FSA to determine which product is Islamic product and which is not. Research Gap and significance There is no doubt that Islamic Banking and finance is a very hot topic in Western world. Many researchers have presented the growth history and mentioned the annual growth rate of Islamic finance in UK. But less focus is given on the reason of this fast growth, its consequences and what will be possibilities for Islamic finance in future in UK finance market and what could be the challenges for Islamic products in UK. So proposed research will critically review the information provided in literature and will explore the possible reasons of this fast growth and will also try to figure out the possibilities of future growth and challenges in UK market. Research Methodology The title of the research suggest that researcher is exploring the growth of Islamic finance in UK, so proposed study will be exploratory research in which research will explore the available literature to find out how Islamic finance make its way in UK financial market and how it have been growing till now. Researcher will further explore through research papers and FSA reports and articles that what could be the future scope for the Islamic finance and banking. Researcher will also try to find common Islamic products offered in UK financial market through Islamic banks or Islamic windows and what could be the possible challenges for the Islamic finance. Secondary Data According to Fowler (2008) secondary data is a data that is taken from already available data that is collected by other researchers or government agencies for their own purposes. The sources of that data is any kind of published material in form of books, articles, researcher papers, reports etc. As mentioned above that proposed study is exploratory in nature, so secondary data collection method will be best because Islamic banking and finance is very hot topic in the west especially in UK and many Muslim and Western scholars are trying to figure out the future of Islamic finance. It is also mentioned in literature review that researchers claim that Islamic finance is the most growing sector in international financial market. So for exploring all these reality secondary research will be best and researcher will explore already published research and will identify the future scope and challenges for Islamic finance in UK market. Qualitative approach For proposed study qualitative approach will be adopted to explain, interpret and analyze the information gathered through secondary sources. Researcher will try to find out the trends and patterns from available information qualitatively to understand the possible scope and challenges for Islamic finance in UK. Denscomb M (2007) argued that in qualitative approach data is presented in words and images. This approach is adopted where researcher deals will problems related to social sciences or researcher try to explain the points using words or images. In proposed research, researcher is also using words and images to explore and explain the facts regarding Islamic finance. But researcher will not restrict him/herself to qualitative approach and will also use numbers and figures if needed. So researcher will mostly rely on qualitative approach but also can use qualitative data. Quantitative approach According to Denscomb M (2007) in qualitative approach data is collected or analyzed using numbers or figures.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Resolutions at Workplace - 2122 Words

RESOLUTIONS AT WORKPLACES Today, negative samples of conflicts are surrounding us; when you turn on your TV, almost every news program, reality show or a talk show or sitcom episode, we watch people acting out their conflicts more often than not in their worst way possible. Let’s face the reality here; anyone working person, spends more time with our work colleagues with than we do with our family, friends and loved ones. Fortunately or rather unfortunately, our work colleagues become our best friends. â€Å"But even in the best of times it’s not unusual to be faced with the guy three cubicles down from yours whom you’d just as soon clobber than look at again. Fold in a heightened sense of tension due to uncertain job security these days and†¦show more content†¦Mediation supports people to find a path through the pain of conflict and out to resolution. Mediation does help parties to generate their own positive outcome from their conflict journey (Katherine Graham, 2010)†. According to Vivian Scott, every person involved in a conflict, has a responsibility in that conflict. â€Å"As difficult as it is to admit you probably have some responsibility in the conflict. Self-assessment, and by that I mean more than 30 seconds of superficial introspection, requires you to consider how your actions and reactions look to others. Ask yourself, what have I said or done, or not said or done, that has kept this conflict going? Change may not happen overnight, and you may need the assistance of friends, family, or professionals to help you through the transition. No need to continue being the bully, the one who stirs the pot, or even the victim. If it takes two to tango and you’re no longer willing to dance, the conflict has no choice but to diminish, (Vivian Scott, 2010)†. Pride comes before a fall; we have to change our character and even when our expectations are not met, the immense fulfillment of our goals and ideas in furthering our agenda has a quality that is above the conflict. When we examine and change our own habitual patterns ofShow MoreRelatedConflict resolution in the workplace800 Words   |  4 PagesConflict resolution in the workplace Introduction Conflict is a fact in any relationship including the work area. Still, it is important to emphasize that some conflicts should not be seen as good or bad, they are just differences. Many times when there are disagreements between players these issues are left on the table without giving much emphasis. Unfortunately some of these conflicts have reached a level that ends in a physical altercation. When things get out of proportion, the sports psychologistRead MoreConflict Resolution Of The Workplace1585 Words   |  7 Pages Conflict Resolution Although many of us go great lengths to avoid it, sometimes it is just inevitable. People in the workplace setting will always have different ideas, values, and attitudes than others around them. A conflict can arouse in any given setting, and the affect it can have on those involved can either be negative or positive. Depending on the approach and strategies utilized during and after a conflict will determine the result of the conflict. Conflict helps people recognize legitimateRead MoreConflict Resolution at the Workplace1597 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Workplace Conflict Resolution If you search the word conflict in the dictionary, you are likely to find plenty of negative connotations. Many explain conflict as: coming to collision or a disagreement; clash; contention; controversy; fighting or quarreling, states Random House (1975). As these definitions are negative in nature, most people tend to withdraw when they enter an arena with conflict. Business Environment Conflict If you can recognize and understand exactly what creates conflictRead MoreConflict Resolution Of The Workplace2822 Words   |  12 PagesConflict in the Workplace Kara K. Martin University of South Dakota Abstract While an individual may attempt to avoid conflict in the workplace, there is no way to actually escape it. In the workplace environment, there are a variety of co-worker relationships and challenging work situations that may increase our emotional response. Therefore, it is important for employees to have the skills and abilities to recognize when conflict occurs, identify the type of conflict, and to implementRead MoreConflict Resolution Within The Workplace1224 Words   |  5 Pagessolving methods to address conflict resolution within the workplace. 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We should have them sit down and deal with the issues: 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Set a time to talk to the individuals 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Deal with one issue at a time 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Be brief and specific. Conflict in the Workplace 4 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Phrase your complaint as specific behavior which the person can recognize and work toward changing. Hopefully this will make thing to easier and avoid conflict in the future. 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(2014), you do not have to feel pressured to instantly agree with other teammates; however, be respectful and listen intently and identify what you are able to offer to the team. Conflicts occur because of the different points of view. They can also happen because

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Alzheimers Disease Essay - 1800 Words

Alzheimers Disease On the first day of class, it was proposed that Brain=Behavior, implying that not only all actions and emotions can be explained by neuronal activity, but also the very sense of self which is so important to many of us. This latter implication was met with considerable resistance. Surely there must be more to an individuals personality and Self than a bunch of patterns of activity across neurons. Through the research I have done for this paper, I have discovered that disorders such as Alzheimers disease add a new twist to the debate surrounding the origin of the Self. My purpose here is to provide an overview of Alzheimers disease, including its neurobiological basis, the differences between early and late†¦show more content†¦The disease functions by causing neurons to degenerate and lose their synapses with other nerves, thus cutting down severely on the intercellular communication which lies at the heart of all behavior. (1). Degeneration is characterized by clumps of beta amyloid (a protein fragment derived from amyloid precursor protein, or APP) called neuritic plaques which form outside and around neurons, as well as by the twisting and tangling of a neurons microtubules, a phenomenon referred to as neurofibrillary tangles (1, 2). These tangles specifically involve a protein known as tau, which usually forms the crosspieces or rungs of the parallel-running tracks of microtubules. In Alzheimers patients, however, these crosspieces twist into helical shapes, thus breaking down the neurons inner transportation system. The precise functions of beta amyloid and tau are not yet known; however, various studies suggest that beta amyloid may be involved in altering the concentrations of various chemicals both inside and outside of neurons, either by creating extra channels in the neuronal membrane or by changing already existing channels (see 1 for more details). (1) Research targeting the cause, or possibly, causes of Alzheimers disease has a number of areas of focus, including several neurotransmitters, various postsynaptic events, genetic factors, cell metabolism, and possible environmental contributorsShow MoreRelatedAlzheimers Disease945 Words   |  4 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive neurological disease; it often attacks the brain tissues causing memory loss of one’s identity and regular behaviors. Statistics indicates that the rate of predicted people to get Alzheimer’s will increase briskly as time goes on. There are currently no cures for such disastrous disease, but there are currently approved treatments available that can help people within the early stages of Alzheimer’s. Once the disease is too far alongRead MoreAlzheimers Disease3170 Words   |  13 PagesThe Role of Caregiving to Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Megan Zann April 27, 2012 Health Psychology Dr. Ackerman Introduction It is normal to periodically forget your keys or a homework assignment, because you generally remember these things later. However, individuals who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease may forget things more often, but they do not remember them again. The incidence of Alzheimer’s disease has dramatically increased because people are living longer. This is a result ofRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease1503 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia that gets worse over time. It leads to nerve cell death, and tissue loss throughout the brain. Over time, the brain shrinks dramatically, affecting nearly all its functions. It gradually destroys a persons memory and ability to learn and carry out daily activities such as talking, eating, and going to the bathroom† (What Is Alzheimer’s). Early symptoms include personality changes, memory impairment, problems with language, decision-making ability, judgmentRead MoreAlzheimers Dis ease Essay2414 Words   |  10 PagesAlzheimers Disease Alzheimer’s disease is the disease of the century. This disease is affecting many lives, families, and caregivers. This research presented is to help educate on the topic of Alzheimer’s disease, which many people aren’t aware enough about. Statistics are given to show how extreme this disease is, and how many people it’s affecting in society. Also statistics are presented that give the amount of money being spent relating to Alzheimer’s disease. This research explainsRead MoreAlzheimer’s Disease Essay2544 Words   |  11 PagesAlzheimer’s disease defined: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, terminal, degenerative brain disease. It is the fourth leading cause of death in adults and currently affects over four million people in the United States. This number is expected to increase over the next several years as the baby boomers age, until it reaches fourteen million by the year 2025. Alzheimer disease generally occurs in people over seventy five years of age; however it does strike people in their forties, fiftiesRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease2405 Words   |  10 PagesAlzheimers Disease is a condition that affects 50% of the population over the age of eighty five, which equals four million Americans each year. It is becoming an important and high-profile issue in todays society for everyone. There are rapid advancements being made in the fight against this disease now more than ever, and the purpose of this essay is to educate the public on the background as well as the new discoveries. There are many new drugs that are being tested and studied every day whichRead MoreAlzheimers Disease Essay2168 Words   |  9 PagesAlzheimer’s disease or AD is an incurable disorder of the brain that results in loss of normal brain structure and function. In an AD brain, normal brain tissue is slowly replaced by structures called plaques and neurofibrillary tang les. The plaques represent a naturally occurring sticky protein called beta amyloid and in an Alzheimer’s brain, sufferer’s tend to accumulate too much of this protein. Neurofibrillary tangles represent collapsed tau proteins which, in a normal brain along with microtubulesRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease813 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿Topic: Alzheimer’s Disease Specific Purpose: To help my audience understand what Alzheimer’s Disease is. Thesis Statement: The need to educate people on Alzheimer’s Disease for family members or friends in-case a loved one is diagnosed. Introduction: A. What would one do if their family member or friend knew of someone who was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s Disease? What would they do to help or take care of this family member? Well, I work in a nursing home with the elderly with this diseaseRead MoreEssay on Alzheimers Disease 512 Words   |  3 Pagesmajor medical advancements like the world has never seen before, some diseases still continue to plague the human race and confuse even some of the brightest scientists today. Unfortunately, Alzheimer Disease (AD) is one of them and it affects between 2.4 and 4.5 million people in America. Alzheimer’s is usually diagnosed in people over the age of 65, but in rarer cases people as young as 16 have it. Since it is a degenerative disease, patients develop it with few symptoms at an earlier stage, but thenRead More Alzheimer’s Disease Essay1176 Words   |  5 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a disease of the future. With the growing aged population, this disease, which affects primarily the elderly, will become of increasing relevance to the medical profession. Also, the high frequency of Alzheimer’s, and the high cost in labor, money, and material of caring for its victims shall put considerable burden on the society as a whole. Here, however, these issues are not going to be debated. Instead the pathology of Alzheimer’s will be reviewed

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cleaning Area of Medical Equipment †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Cleaning Area of Medical Equipment. Answer: Introduction: A contaminated area is a place where all the dirty surgical items and other equipment are sent in boxes. Items are regularly physically checked to confirm that they are at their right place. Equipment in this field flows in one direction. Items used for the survey are sent for quality cleaning according to their priority. To avoid contamination, doorways are appropriately sterilized. No one can enter into the cleaning premises before showing their identification card. Even, the workers have to show their ID cards. Sterile and contaminated medical instruments are always kept in different boxes. All the sterile items are transferred into the clean place so they can again used in multiple medical procedures. Various kind of rubbish material is thrown in the garbage, and all the sharps instrument first put in the boxes and then sent for the process of disposition. Scrubber signed this process. The labels are used to find their actual status, i.e., prior or post-surgery. Date, patient nam e, and signature are written on the label. Delicate items are separated from solid ones. Items that cannot handle the pressure of disinfectants are manually cleaned. Before putting in a tray, contaminated items are sprayed by a disinfectant. The equipment that is used at the time of abdomen surgery is washed in a particular place and by a different procedure. Machine and manual process are two methods of cleaning and disinfection. Mostly, machine procedure is used because it takes around one hour. In this process, the first step is rinse; second is a wash using disinfectant and last in drying thermally. Ultrasound is used for cleaning unreachable areas. The ultrasound work through a generator that creates energy that makes vacuum to clean the objects. Multiple chemicals are used in producing plastics. There are various stages in a machine which cleans the plastic. Index washer is the first chamber which includes two minutes pre-rinse with tap water. For next five minutes, it is wash ed at a temperature of 60 with an enzymatic solution, and then it is rinsed using mineral water. After that, the equipment proceeds to ultra-sonic, where it stays for six minutes. Then the object is dried after using thermal disinfection. It is necessary to ensure that your hands are cleaned after visiting the contaminated area. Cleaning or sterilized area Before performing surgery, a bunch of items is sent to the operators, and they counter check and pack such items before sending it back to the hospital. Operator ensures that equipment is clean and sterilized before sending them back to the hospital. After checking the items, operator provides that tray is ready to use and items are available to wrap. There is a specific procedure of packaging such equipment; the wrapping material allows the steam to release and pass through. Linen is used in covering the heavy loads.