Monday, May 25, 2020

The Growth Of Islamic Financial Services In UK - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2871 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“There is huge potential for an expansion of Islamic offerings in the UK financial markets, which will boost Londonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s position as an international financial centreà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?. (Callum McCarthy,2007) Background Islam is a divine religion and provides guidance for all walks of life. Muslims are currently trying to revitalize the Islamic laws in all fields of life. Especially economic field is in great focus. In 1980à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Middle East Muslim countries again tries to put in practice the Islamic financial Islamic laws 1st time and set the foundations for Islamic banking and finance for the world. After that Islamic financial services grew very fast not only Muslim countries but also in Non-Muslim countries. According to FSA (Bank of England and the Financial Services Authority) briefing note (2006) currently Islamic banking and finance is growing from 10% to 15% annually in international market and the main reason of this growth is that Muslim population in Western world and Islamic products are socially responsible. According to Shayerah Ilias (2009) Shariah or Islamic laws are the bases of Islamic finance. Shariah prohibits interest, uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing an d profit-sharing and promote ethical investment and asset backing. S. Ilias (2009) also claimed that currently there is 10% to 15% annual growth in international market for Islamic finance because some researchers argued that Islamic finance brings lots of business opportunities and alternative methods for capital formation and economic development. Among the Western world the demand of Islamic financial market is especially growing in North America and UK, although Muslims are in minority there. According to FSA briefing notes (2006) FSA approved license for the 1st fully Shariah compliance bank Islamic Bank of Britain (IBB) in 2004 and this bank sells Islamic products in consumer market. In 2006 FSA licensed European Islamic Investment Bank that was the 1st independent Shariah compliant investment bank in UK. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Growth Of Islamic Financial Services In UK" essay for you Create order Aims and objectives Considering the above mentioned historical background of Islamic banking and finance in UK the proposed study aims to further investigate and explore how Islamic banking and finance grew in UK market. Study will explore the motives behind this fast growth and the challenges. Research will further investigate and explore the future scope of Islamic finance in UK. In other world the objective of the research is To explore the growth of Islamic banking and financial services in UK. To find out which Islamic products are commonly sold in UK financial market To explore the reasons of growth of Islamic finance in UK To identify the future possibilities for Islamic banking and finance in UK financial Market To identify the challenges for Islamic banking and finance in UK To meet these objectives proposed research will answer the following questions Whether Islamic banking is growing in Western countries like UK? What kind of Islamic products are commonly sold in UK financial market? What is the Future of Islamic Banking in UK? What kind of challenges Islamic banking and finance can face in Western world particularly in UK? Literature review Islamic banking Ismail Tohirin (2010) argued that Muslims around the world spend their lives under Islamic Rules which are defined by The Holy Book of Quran that is called Shariah law. In Shariah law, all type of interest in Islamic banking products and Islamic finance is forbidden. In Islamic banking, no interest is involved but time value of money and risk considered very important and play its part. Customers and Islamic banking work together on the basis of risk sharing. Both share risks which are already agreed on the terms of investment, profits and losses. According to Laldin (2008) Interest is forbidden in investment of alcohol, pornography and betting. Other banks cannot help Islamic banks or Islamic banks cannot get help to lend. There are different types of Islamic products available for customers. Ijara and Murabha are considered very important products. Historical Background of growth of Islamic banking in UK According to FSA (Bank of England and the Financial Services Authority) briefing note (2006) 3% population of UK are Muslims and nearly half million Muslim visitors regularly visits UK. These facts are the major reason of growth in Islamic banking and finance. Many UK high street bank are offering current accounts and mortgages through Islamic windows. The report further claimed that in Western world the first fully fledged Shahriah bank à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Islamic Bank of Britonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬? was introduced in 2004 in UK with FSA authorization. London is a major financial center for international firms and Middle Eastà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s banks that offer Islamic products. This also confirms that Islamic finance is growing from 10% to 15% annually at global level. Shayerah Ilias (2009) claimed that internationally modern Islamic finance introduced in 1970à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s. There is no doubt that currently Islamic has a very small but growing market in global financial market and esti mated annual growth rate of Islamic finance is 10% to 15% in last 10 years. He further claimed that Islamic bonds (Sukuk) are gaining popularity in global market. $ 70 million worth Islamic bonds are in global financial market and up to $100 millions are expected in 2010. Global growth of Sukuk from 2004-2007 is approximately more than five folds. This is shown by the following figure (Source Shayerah Ilias, 2009, Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concern, DIANE Publishing) Ismail and Tohirin, (2010) also claimed that the growth of Islamic banks is 10-15% per year and there is strong expectation that it will grow further. The recent credit crisis gave further boost to Shariah compliant banking and finance. There are 300 different Islamic Institutions in 51 different countries of the world. The amount of total assets hold by Islamic banks is 822 billion US dollars. In addition, there are 250 mutual funds working around the world which are completely complying with the Isl amic banking and financial system. According to CIMB Group Holding Analysis, the rate of growth of Islamic banking and finance is fast than any other financial institution. The rate of growth of Islamic bonds is nearly 24% with the total amount of 25 billion US dollars in 2010. The network of Islamic banking is not only constrained in the Muslim world but it is also spread in different continent and different developed world including America and United Kingdom. Principles of Islamic Banking and Islamic products The purpose of Islamic banking is same as main stream banking system except that it is in accordance with the laws of Shariah. The transactions in Islamic banking system are done with the help of Islamic banking system. The most common terms used in Islamic banking are Riba (interest), Mudarabah (Profit sharing), safekeeping (Wadiah), Musharakah (Joint Venture) Ijara (leasing) Tufakil (Insurance). (Hassan and Lewis, 2007) Islamic Mortgages The banks first purchase the property and then sell it to its customer. Here Islamic banks are not acting as a third party. They get ownership of the property and deal with the customer as first hand party. The banks give ownership of property to its customer from very first day. As bank income is implicit and banks do not charge some additional amount on the late payments. To avoid the bankruptcy, the banks do extensive check of credit worthiness and security measures. This type of agreement is called Murabha. Another approach is called Ijara; this contract is same like real estate and mostly applied on the leasing of vehicle. The customer is charged higher for the product then market value of product. The ownership of product is given at the time of full payment. (Hassan and Lewis, 2007) Partnership (Musharakah) In this type of product the bank and borrowing party make a partnership entity. They both invest in the property. The borrower then gives property at the rent and gets rental income. At this stage bank and borrower both have shares in the property. The borrower then starts to pay the money at the greed amount and banks shares reduce with each instalment. This will carry on until borrower gets all the shares of property for the bank. (Benamraoui, 2008) In case of default both bank and borrower will get the proceeds from sales in certain percentage which is equal to floating market rates, on the basis of BLR (basic lending rate). This is especially applicable in the banking system is dual in nature. Mudarabah (venture capital) In this contract one party provides the finance for a project while other party provides required expertise and labour force. Both the parties get agree in the beginning of contract in case of profit from the project who much will be share of both parties and if project gets failed then in what proportion they will share the shock of loss. Here expert company does not promise to pay certain amount of money back. Rather than that they keep an uncertainty. The logical justification for that is the future is uncertain. A project which is looking very good and there is strong expectation that it will give positive cash flow from the beginning can get wrong and result into loss. On the other hand, uncertain external environment can make a very weak project to a good positive cash generator. In such circumstances, it is not possible for any organization to promise that they will definitely give certain amount of money. (Hassan and Lewis, 2007) In modern banking system, banks normally promise with the investor that they will give them certain amount of money. If due to internal or external economic reason, they get failed, they have to apply for bankruptcy. In this case investors lose whole sum of money. It means if someone makes a promise that they will pay them certain money is actually lie. Islamic banks do not involve in such guarantees. (Ismail and Tohirin, 2010) Islamic Credit Cards Islamic credit cards are accepted in all over the world. These are getting more and more popular due to their benefits which holder of card get and not available through the cards of main stream banks. The holders of card will not have to pay the interest if payment is made before due date. The second benefit of Islamic credit card is that the cardholder can pay Zakat and Takaful online through this card. (Ismail and Tohirin, 2010) Bai Al-Inahl, Quardul Hassan and Al-Wadiah can be applied in Islamic credit card transactions. In this way, Islamic credit cards are complied with the Shariah products. The main stream banks are not providing any of such facilities. The transaction make through Islamic credit cards are interest free and have fixed profit margin if payment on the credit card is late. It does not compound up once payment is not made in time as traditional banks are doing. (Ismail and Tohirin, 2010) Sukuk  (Islamic Bond) These are Islamic financial certifica tes or in other word, these are Islamic bonds. The investors in the bond do not get the fixed rate of return on investment as interest is prohibited in Islamic economics. The Islamic bonds are classified into tradability and Non-tradability. The total worth of Islamic bonds in next ten years framework would be 1.2 trillion US dollars. The holder of these bonds profit at the rate as the investor is returning to issuer Company. The issuer of bonds set the terms and conditions of its shares in profit. However, investors also share some risk of loss. To avoid the risk the investment project is carefully monitored in the beginning of contract and during the life cycle of project. (Laldin, 2008) Main drivers of Growth M. Ainley et al (2007) argued that there are six main reasons of growth of Islamic financial services in UK No Reason of Growth Explanation 1 Global expansion Islamic finance is growing very fast in the world. Islamic banking 1st introduces in 1060à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s in Middle East and grows very fast and now its market size is approximately  £250bn globally and nearly 300 financial institutions are offering Islamic financial products. This fast growth has affect UK market too 2 Liquid Markets Londonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s financial market is very flexible, innovative and liquid. UK financial industry is very famous for developing and delivering new financial products 3 Islamic windows Many global banks and financial institutes are working in Middle East and South East Asian countries and have gained a very experience of local market where Islamic banking is growing very fast. So these international banks like Citi, HSBC etc have established Islamic windows that sell Islamic products with their normal routine business. 4 Excess Liquidity in Middle East Excessive Liquidity in the Middle East countries have encouraged the growth of Islamic as well as conventional assets and local financial markets are not capable enough to manage financial activities and large investors starting considering international financial markets. 5 Public policy and regulation UK government also have changed public policy and taxation and developed a taxation policy that is both applicable for both Islamic and conventional financial products 6 Single financial regulator UK government have developed 11 different financial regulators into one by introducing the Bank of England and the Financial Services Authority (FSA) that has increased the result in improved access to Islamic banks and Islamic financial products (Source M. Ainley et al, 2007, Islamic Finance in the UK: Regulation and Challenges, Financial Service Authority accessed from Challenges for Islamic finance in UK According to Clive Briault (2007) currently Islamic banks are facing the same challenges as conventional banking but there are some risks which are affecting Islamic banks only. But he mentioned two challenges in particular Risk Management Clive Briault (2007) argued that it is very difficult to manage risk for Islamic finance because many risk management tools that are used by conventional banks or firms are not compliant to Shariah. So there is a big challenge for Islamic finance to develop the tools for risk management. He used the example of Mudaraba and claimed that this product have the same effects in term of liquidity as conventional banksà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ interbank deposit and FSA have concern that how Islamic banks will manage risk for that products. Diverse opinion among Shariah scholars Clive Briault (2007) also claimed that 2nd main concern about Islamic banking is that there is a difference in opinion among Shariah scholars about the different products an d FSA a secular regulator not religious so it is difficult for FSA to determine which product is Islamic product and which is not. Research Gap and significance There is no doubt that Islamic Banking and finance is a very hot topic in Western world. Many researchers have presented the growth history and mentioned the annual growth rate of Islamic finance in UK. But less focus is given on the reason of this fast growth, its consequences and what will be possibilities for Islamic finance in future in UK finance market and what could be the challenges for Islamic products in UK. So proposed research will critically review the information provided in literature and will explore the possible reasons of this fast growth and will also try to figure out the possibilities of future growth and challenges in UK market. Research Methodology The title of the research suggest that researcher is exploring the growth of Islamic finance in UK, so proposed study will be exploratory research in which research will explore the available literature to find out how Islamic finance make its way in UK financial market and how it have been growing till now. Researcher will further explore through research papers and FSA reports and articles that what could be the future scope for the Islamic finance and banking. Researcher will also try to find common Islamic products offered in UK financial market through Islamic banks or Islamic windows and what could be the possible challenges for the Islamic finance. Secondary Data According to Fowler (2008) secondary data is a data that is taken from already available data that is collected by other researchers or government agencies for their own purposes. The sources of that data is any kind of published material in form of books, articles, researcher papers, reports etc. As mentioned above that proposed study is exploratory in nature, so secondary data collection method will be best because Islamic banking and finance is very hot topic in the west especially in UK and many Muslim and Western scholars are trying to figure out the future of Islamic finance. It is also mentioned in literature review that researchers claim that Islamic finance is the most growing sector in international financial market. So for exploring all these reality secondary research will be best and researcher will explore already published research and will identify the future scope and challenges for Islamic finance in UK market. Qualitative approach For proposed study qualitative approach will be adopted to explain, interpret and analyze the information gathered through secondary sources. Researcher will try to find out the trends and patterns from available information qualitatively to understand the possible scope and challenges for Islamic finance in UK. Denscomb M (2007) argued that in qualitative approach data is presented in words and images. This approach is adopted where researcher deals will problems related to social sciences or researcher try to explain the points using words or images. In proposed research, researcher is also using words and images to explore and explain the facts regarding Islamic finance. But researcher will not restrict him/herself to qualitative approach and will also use numbers and figures if needed. So researcher will mostly rely on qualitative approach but also can use qualitative data. Quantitative approach According to Denscomb M (2007) in qualitative approach data is collected or analyzed using numbers or figures.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Resolutions at Workplace - 2122 Words

RESOLUTIONS AT WORKPLACES Today, negative samples of conflicts are surrounding us; when you turn on your TV, almost every news program, reality show or a talk show or sitcom episode, we watch people acting out their conflicts more often than not in their worst way possible. Let’s face the reality here; anyone working person, spends more time with our work colleagues with than we do with our family, friends and loved ones. Fortunately or rather unfortunately, our work colleagues become our best friends. â€Å"But even in the best of times it’s not unusual to be faced with the guy three cubicles down from yours whom you’d just as soon clobber than look at again. Fold in a heightened sense of tension due to uncertain job security these days and†¦show more content†¦Mediation supports people to find a path through the pain of conflict and out to resolution. Mediation does help parties to generate their own positive outcome from their conflict journey (Katherine Graham, 2010)†. According to Vivian Scott, every person involved in a conflict, has a responsibility in that conflict. â€Å"As difficult as it is to admit you probably have some responsibility in the conflict. Self-assessment, and by that I mean more than 30 seconds of superficial introspection, requires you to consider how your actions and reactions look to others. Ask yourself, what have I said or done, or not said or done, that has kept this conflict going? Change may not happen overnight, and you may need the assistance of friends, family, or professionals to help you through the transition. No need to continue being the bully, the one who stirs the pot, or even the victim. If it takes two to tango and you’re no longer willing to dance, the conflict has no choice but to diminish, (Vivian Scott, 2010)†. Pride comes before a fall; we have to change our character and even when our expectations are not met, the immense fulfillment of our goals and ideas in furthering our agenda has a quality that is above the conflict. When we examine and change our own habitual patterns ofShow MoreRelatedConflict resolution in the workplace800 Words   |  4 PagesConflict resolution in the workplace Introduction Conflict is a fact in any relationship including the work area. Still, it is important to emphasize that some conflicts should not be seen as good or bad, they are just differences. Many times when there are disagreements between players these issues are left on the table without giving much emphasis. Unfortunately some of these conflicts have reached a level that ends in a physical altercation. When things get out of proportion, the sports psychologistRead MoreConflict Resolution Of The Workplace1585 Words   |  7 Pages Conflict Resolution Although many of us go great lengths to avoid it, sometimes it is just inevitable. People in the workplace setting will always have different ideas, values, and attitudes than others around them. A conflict can arouse in any given setting, and the affect it can have on those involved can either be negative or positive. Depending on the approach and strategies utilized during and after a conflict will determine the result of the conflict. Conflict helps people recognize legitimateRead MoreConflict Resolution at the Workplace1597 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Workplace Conflict Resolution If you search the word conflict in the dictionary, you are likely to find plenty of negative connotations. Many explain conflict as: coming to collision or a disagreement; clash; contention; controversy; fighting or quarreling, states Random House (1975). 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We should have them sit down and deal with the issues: 1.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Set a time to talk to the individuals 2.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Deal with one issue at a time 3.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Be brief and specific. Conflict in the Workplace 4 4.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Phrase your complaint as specific behavior which the person can recognize and work toward changing. Hopefully this will make thing to easier and avoid conflict in the future. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Alzheimers Disease Essay - 1800 Words

Alzheimers Disease On the first day of class, it was proposed that Brain=Behavior, implying that not only all actions and emotions can be explained by neuronal activity, but also the very sense of self which is so important to many of us. This latter implication was met with considerable resistance. Surely there must be more to an individuals personality and Self than a bunch of patterns of activity across neurons. Through the research I have done for this paper, I have discovered that disorders such as Alzheimers disease add a new twist to the debate surrounding the origin of the Self. My purpose here is to provide an overview of Alzheimers disease, including its neurobiological basis, the differences between early and late†¦show more content†¦The disease functions by causing neurons to degenerate and lose their synapses with other nerves, thus cutting down severely on the intercellular communication which lies at the heart of all behavior. (1). Degeneration is characterized by clumps of beta amyloid (a protein fragment derived from amyloid precursor protein, or APP) called neuritic plaques which form outside and around neurons, as well as by the twisting and tangling of a neurons microtubules, a phenomenon referred to as neurofibrillary tangles (1, 2). These tangles specifically involve a protein known as tau, which usually forms the crosspieces or rungs of the parallel-running tracks of microtubules. In Alzheimers patients, however, these crosspieces twist into helical shapes, thus breaking down the neurons inner transportation system. The precise functions of beta amyloid and tau are not yet known; however, various studies suggest that beta amyloid may be involved in altering the concentrations of various chemicals both inside and outside of neurons, either by creating extra channels in the neuronal membrane or by changing already existing channels (see 1 for more details). 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Unfortunately, Alzheimer Disease (AD) is one of them and it affects between 2.4 and 4.5 million people in America. Alzheimer’s is usually diagnosed in people over the age of 65, but in rarer cases people as young as 16 have it. Since it is a degenerative disease, patients develop it with few symptoms at an earlier stage, but thenRead More Alzheimer’s Disease Essay1176 Words   |  5 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease is a disease of the future. With the growing aged population, this disease, which affects primarily the elderly, will become of increasing relevance to the medical profession. Also, the high frequency of Alzheimer’s, and the high cost in labor, money, and material of caring for its victims shall put considerable burden on the society as a whole. Here, however, these issues are not going to be debated. Instead the pathology of Alzheimer’s will be reviewed

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cleaning Area of Medical Equipment †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Cleaning Area of Medical Equipment. Answer: Introduction: A contaminated area is a place where all the dirty surgical items and other equipment are sent in boxes. Items are regularly physically checked to confirm that they are at their right place. Equipment in this field flows in one direction. Items used for the survey are sent for quality cleaning according to their priority. To avoid contamination, doorways are appropriately sterilized. No one can enter into the cleaning premises before showing their identification card. Even, the workers have to show their ID cards. Sterile and contaminated medical instruments are always kept in different boxes. All the sterile items are transferred into the clean place so they can again used in multiple medical procedures. Various kind of rubbish material is thrown in the garbage, and all the sharps instrument first put in the boxes and then sent for the process of disposition. Scrubber signed this process. The labels are used to find their actual status, i.e., prior or post-surgery. Date, patient nam e, and signature are written on the label. Delicate items are separated from solid ones. Items that cannot handle the pressure of disinfectants are manually cleaned. Before putting in a tray, contaminated items are sprayed by a disinfectant. The equipment that is used at the time of abdomen surgery is washed in a particular place and by a different procedure. Machine and manual process are two methods of cleaning and disinfection. Mostly, machine procedure is used because it takes around one hour. In this process, the first step is rinse; second is a wash using disinfectant and last in drying thermally. Ultrasound is used for cleaning unreachable areas. The ultrasound work through a generator that creates energy that makes vacuum to clean the objects. Multiple chemicals are used in producing plastics. There are various stages in a machine which cleans the plastic. Index washer is the first chamber which includes two minutes pre-rinse with tap water. For next five minutes, it is wash ed at a temperature of 60 with an enzymatic solution, and then it is rinsed using mineral water. After that, the equipment proceeds to ultra-sonic, where it stays for six minutes. Then the object is dried after using thermal disinfection. It is necessary to ensure that your hands are cleaned after visiting the contaminated area. Cleaning or sterilized area Before performing surgery, a bunch of items is sent to the operators, and they counter check and pack such items before sending it back to the hospital. Operator ensures that equipment is clean and sterilized before sending them back to the hospital. After checking the items, operator provides that tray is ready to use and items are available to wrap. There is a specific procedure of packaging such equipment; the wrapping material allows the steam to release and pass through. Linen is used in covering the heavy loads.

Monday, April 6, 2020

The Death Of Socrates Essay Research Paper free essay sample

The Death Of Socrates Essay, Research Paper # 8220 ; Crito, you and other people who claimed to be friends to Socrates are all useless! How could you have been so cowardly, or lazy, or stingy, as to let you # 8216 ; friend # 8217 ; to decease? Surely, with a small bravery, energy, and money, you could hold saved him. # 8221 ; Those are strong accusals coming from person who evidently did non cognize Socrates every bit good as his other pupils or me. Although, I expected that people would respond this manner to my actions, or deficiency of actions, sing Socrates death.For Socrates, being executed was the lone option available to him. Of class we, his friends, could hold helped him to get away, but what would that turn out? It would merely travel against everything that Socrates has taught us. It would besides withstand everything that Socrates stood for in life. Escaping penalty, would hold been an unfair and fearful act for him. We will write a custom essay sample on The Death Of Socrates Essay Research Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Disobeying the jurisprudence would put a bad illustration for his fellow citizens. In add-on, it would destroy his repute for being merely and following the Torahs of the authorities. Socrates believed that, although he was wrongfully accused, he was Gb ven a fair trial through the eyes of the law. The fact that he was given a fair trial means that he was given a fair punishment. If this punishment is not carried out, justice will not be served. Escaping punishment would cause a conflict between his teachings and his actions. This would eradicate the moral reputation that Socrates had built for himself throughout his life. The question he would have asked himself would have been, â€Å"What kind of example would I be setting if I dishonored my own teachings?† He saw his punishment as a contract between he and the government, and he firmly believed that agreements should not be broken. This is the same government that allowed him to live life as he chose, so why harm an institution that benefited him?In addition, what kind of student would I be if I disregarded everything I learned from my teacher and helped him to escape? That would go against my own principles and destroy my self-respect. If I helped Socrates to escape, al l of his lessons and our discussions would have lost all meaning. So I ask you, how could I have helped Socrates escape and then live with my actions?

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Feminist Literary Criticism Defined

Feminist Literary Criticism Defined Feminist literary criticism (also known as feminist criticism) is the literary analysis that arises from the viewpoint of feminism, ​feminist theory, and/or feminist politics. Critical Methodology A feminist literary critic resists traditional assumptions while reading a text. In addition to challenging assumptions which were thought to be universal, feminist literary criticism actively supports including womens knowledge in literature and valuing womens experiences. The basic methods of feminist literary criticism include: Identifying with female characters: By examining the way female characters are defined, critics challenge the male-centered outlook of authors. Feminist literary criticism suggests that women in literature have been historically presented as objects seen from a male perspective.Reevaluating literature and the world in which literature is read: By revisiting the classic literature, the critic can question whether society has predominantly valued male authors and their literary works because it has valued males more than females. Embodying or Undercutting Stereotypes Feminist literary criticism recognizes that literature both reflects and shapes stereotypes and other cultural assumptions.  Thus, feminist literary criticism examines how works of literature embody patriarchal attitudes or undercut them, sometimes both happening within the same work. Feminist theory and various forms of feminist critique began long before the formal naming of the school of literary criticism. In so-called first-wave feminism, the Womans Bible, written in the late 19th century by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, is an example of a work of criticism firmly in this school, looking beyond the more obvious male-centered outlook and interpretation. PhotoQuest / Getty Images During the period of second-wave feminism, academic circles increasingly challenged the male literary canon. Feminist literary criticism has since intertwined with postmodernism and increasingly complex questions of gender and societal roles. Tools of the Feminist Literary Critic Feminist literary criticism may bring in tools from other critical disciplines, such as historical analysis, psychology, linguistics, sociological analysis, economic analysis, for instance.  Feminist criticism may also look at intersectionality, looking at how factors including race, sexuality, physical ability, and class are also involved. Feminist literary criticism may use any of the following methods: Deconstructing the way that women characters are described in novels, stories, plays, biographies, and histories, especially if the author is maleDeconstructing how ones own gender influences how one reads and interprets a text, and which characters and how the reader identifies depending on the readers genderDeconstructing how women autobiographers and biographers of women treat their subjects, and how biographers treat women who are secondary to the main subjectDescribing relationships between the literary text and ideas about power and sexuality and genderCritique of patriarchal or woman-marginalizing language, such as a universal use of the masculine pronouns he and himNoticing and unpacking differences in how men and women write: a style, for instance, where women use more reflexive language and men use more direct language (example: she let herself in vs. he opened the door)Reclaiming women writers who are little known or have been marginalized or undervalued, sometimes referre d to as expanding or criticizing the canon- the usual list of important authors and works  (Examples include raising up the contributions of early playwright ​Aphra Behn, showing how she was treated differently than male writers from her own time forward, and the retrieval of Zora Neale Hurstons writing by Alice Walker.) Reclaiming the female voice as a valuable contribution to literature, even if formerly marginalized or ignoredAnalyzing multiple works in a genre as an overview of a feminist approach to that genre: for example, science fiction or detective fictionAnalyzing multiple works by a single author (often female)Examining how relationships between men and women and those assuming male and female roles are depicted in the text, including power relationsExamining the text to find ways in which patriarchy is resisted or could have been resisted Feminist literary criticism is distinguished from gynocriticism because feminist literary criticism may also analyze and deconstruct literary works of men. Gynocriticism Gynocriticism, or gynocritics, refers to the literary study of women as writers. It is a critical practice exploring and recording female creativity. Gynocriticism attempts to understand women’s writing as a fundamental part of female reality. Some critics now use â€Å"gynocriticism† to refer to the practice and â€Å"gynocritics† to refer to the practitioners. American literary critic Elaine Showalter coined the term gynocritics in her 1979 essay â€Å"Towards a Feminist Poetics.† Unlike feminist literary criticism, which might analyze works by male authors from a feminist perspective, gynocriticism wanted to establish a literary tradition of women without incorporating male authors. Showalter felt that feminist criticism still worked within male assumptions, while gynocriticism would begin a new phase of women’s self-discovery. Resources and Further Reading Alcott, Louisa May. The Feminist Alcott: Stories of a Womans Power. Edited by Madeleine B. Stern, Northeastern University, 1996.Barr, Marleen S. Lost in Space: Probing Feminist Science Fiction and Beyond. University of North Carolina, 1993.Bolin, Alice. Dead Girls: Essays on Surviving an American Obsession. William Morrow, 2018.Burke, Sally. American Feminist Playwrights: A Critical History. Twayne, 1996.Carlin, Deborah. Cather, Canon, and the Politics of Reading. University of Massachusetts, 1992.Castillo, Debra A. Talking Back: Toward a Latin American Feminist Literary Criticism. Cornell University, 1992.Chocano, Carina. You Play the Girl. Mariner, 2017.Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar, editors. Feminist Literary Theory and Criticism: A Norton Reader. Norton, 2007.Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar, editors. Shakespeares Sisters: Feminist Essays on Women Poets. Indiana University, 1993.Lauret, Maria. Liberating Literature: Feminist Fiction in America. Routledge, 1994.Lavigne, C arlen. Cyberpunk Women, Feminism and Science Fiction: A Critical Study. McFarland, 2013. Lorde, Audre. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches. Penguin, 2020.Perreault, Jeanne. Writing Selves: Contemporary Feminist Autography. University of Minnesota, 1995.Plain, Gill, and Susan Sellers, editors. A History of Feminist Literary Criticism. Cambridge University, 2012.Smith, Sidonie, and Julia Watson, editors. De/Colonizing the Subject: The Politics of Gender in Womens Autobiography. University of Minnesota, 1992. This article was edited and with significant additions by Jone Johnson Lewis

Friday, February 21, 2020

This paper needs to be written on the topic of what changes one can Essay

This paper needs to be written on the topic of what changes one can expect when they move out of their parents home and on to their owen. See below for more details - Essay Example Generally, the advantage of living independently is that you learn how to manage your expenses, prepare your own food, manage your time to do household chores, be responsible in paying the bills on time, and to keep a job to sustain your daily needs. On the other hand, the disadvantages of living apart from your parents would sometimes prompt you to get a job and forget about going to college; this happens at times since teens cannot support their own studies unless they get help from their parents. Another disadvantages of moving out of your parents’ house is to maintain the security of your place; this means that you must always be cautious at all times for your security since you are not familiar with the neighborhood and the nature of the people in the community. Another inconvenience in living on your own is the time management; you must expect to have less time for studying and your social life since the household chores would take up some of your time unlike when you ar e in your parents’ house where your mother or your housekeeper usually performs these tasks for you. The first matter to consider before making that big decision is how to sustain our daily necessities. To do this, we need to find a good paying job that can cover the expenses for the rent, food, clothing, transportation, water bills, and electricity bills. Search for jobs in newspapers and online job portals. If you are lucky enough to find a good job, you must be ready to present the required documents for your job application. Some requirements for a job application includes: a copy of your birth certificate; your Social Security Card; your Driver’s License; a copy of your Diploma, your GED or certificates you have received from trainings you have attended (Surviving the Transition). Other requirements include your resume that contains information about your education and your work experiences; a well-composed